In order to communicate or transfer the data from one computer to another computer we need some address. In Computer Network various types of address are introduced; each works at different layer. MAC Addresses are unique bits hardware number of a computer, which is embedded into network card known as Network Interface Card during the time of manufacturing. MAC Address is word wide unique, since millions of network devices exists and we need to uniquely identify each. MAC Address is a digit hexadecimal number 6-Byte binary number , which is mostly represented by Colon-Hexadecimal notation.
Here are some OUI of well known manufacturers :. The rightmost six digits represents Network Interface Controller , which is assigned by manufacturer. But this is just a conversion, not mandatory. Multicast — Multicast address allow the source to send a frame to group of devices. Now the system will be identified through MAC address.
For general instructions on creating instances, see Creating and Starting an Instance. The first interface is always created as nic0 and it is always the default interface. This is important for some other aspects of GCP networking. For example, load balancing supports only nic0. Create network interfaces on a new instance by using the instances create command.
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Include the --network-interface flag for each interface, followed by any appropriate networking keys, such as [network subnet], private-network-ip, address. This snippet only illustrates the --network-interface flag, one of many possible parameters you can specify when creating an instance. For other flags, see the gcloud reference for the instances create command. See the Maximum number of network interfaces table to see what machine types support the number of network interfaces you need.
For more information, refer to the instances. For a complete description of the gcloud compute instances create command and the --network-interface flag, read the documentation for the command. All of the instances within a managed instance group are restricted to a single subnet. All of the instances within an unmanaged instance group are restricted to a single subnet when they were used for load balancing. See the VPC networks and load balancing documentation for more information.
Because of these restrictions, there is only one interface per instance. GCP performs validations based on the subnet associated with the only interface in the instance. When you configure multiple interfaces for instances in a managed or unmanaged instance group, GCP continues to validate these conditions for the default nic0 interface. The process for creating an instance template that uses a single interface per instance is unchanged and is described in the gcloud reference for the instance-templates create command. To configure multiple network interfaces for an instance template, set the --network-interface flag for each network interface you want to create:.
You can assign each interface the following networking keys: network, subnet, address. For complete information on the flags and syntax, see instance-templates create command. For Google supported images, when you need a secondary network interface an interface other than nic0 to communicate with any IP address not local to the primary subnet range of that secondary interface's associated subnet, you need to configure policy routing to ensure that egress packets will leave through the correct interface.
In such cases, you must configure a separate routing table for each network interface using policy routing. Follow these steps to configure policy routing for a Linux-based instance with multiple interfaces:. Configure policy routing with ifconfig for nic1. Invalid value for field 'resource': ''. Too many network interfaces. The maximum number of network interfaces allowed for this machine type is. If you get this error message, you are trying to create more interfaces than the maximum interfaces supported by your instance machine type.
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See the maximum number of interfaces table. If you get this message, you are trying to create more than one interface in the same network.
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Each network interface must be attached to a different VPC network. Each interface belongs to a subnet, each in a different VPC network, that must not overlap with subnets of other interfaces. For example, if you are trying to create your instance in region us-west1 , you can check subnet primary CIDR ranges using the following command or the Google Cloud Platform Console. If you get this message, you are trying to create your instance in a legacy network. Instances with multiple interfaces are not supported with legacy networks.
You can check if a network is legacy network using the following command or the Google Cloud Platform Console. The Mode field indicates the type of network. Required 'compute.
If you get this message, the account you are logged in with does not have IAM permissions necessary for creating an instance. Refer to IAM Permissions for detailed information on the roles required for creating instances. For creating instances in Shared VPC you would additionally need the compute. In the below example, the account email2 gmail. You would need compute.
Check firewall rules to see that they allow connectivity to the VM secondary interface. You can check by looking at the firewall rules for the network that is attached to the secondary interface by either visiting Google Cloud Platform Console and clicking the appropriate VPC network or by using the following gcloud command. Check if you are trying to connect to a secondary interface from an Internet address or from outside of the secondary interface's network. You can only connect to an interface's internal IP from within its network. If you need to reach that interface from outside the network, you can assign an external IP address to your secondary interface.
Check if you are trying to connect to the secondary interface's internal IP from outside the subnet the secondary interface is attached to, either from another subnet of the same network or from a peered network. In order to reach secondary interfaces from outside the interface's subnet, you might have to configure routes on the VM.
source url If you want to connect to the secondary interface using an external IP, there are two options. If you only need to connect outside the network on the secondary network interface, you can set a default route on that network interface. Otherwise, you can use Configuring Policy Routing to configure a separate routing table using source-based policy routing in your VM. By default, the instance metadata server only responds to ARP requests for the default gateway. For example, if you are using a debian-9 based image, you can create an image using following command:.